In a population-based cohort study involving subjects between the ages of 50 and 74 years at baseline, who were followed for a period of of 9.5 years, during which time 1083 died (350 from CVD, 433 from cancer, 55 from respiratory diseases), vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <30 nmol/L) or insufficiency (25(OH)D between 30 and 50 nmol/L) was associated with a significantly increased risk of overall mortality (1.71 and 1.17, respectively), as compared to subjects with sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations (>50 nmol/L), and an increased risk of CVD mortality (1.39), cancer mortality (1.42), and respiratory disease mortality (2.50). The risk of all-cause mortality started to increase at concentrations of 25(OH)D less than 75 nmol/L. The authors conclude, "In this large cohort study, serum 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. In particular, vitamin D deficiency [25(OH)D concentration <30 nmol/L] was strongly associated with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and respiratory diseases."
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