Salmon, Pregnancy, and Inflammation
Researchers assessed whether salmon (rich in omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) consumption twice a week during pregnancy would have an impact on their offspring's umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression. Subjects were randomly assigned to maintain their habitual diets or to consume 2 portions of salmon p/w during pregnancy (months 4-9). ECs were isolated from umbilical cord veins collected at birth and cultured. The cell surface expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) was assessed by flow cytometry after the culture of ECs in the presence and absence of bacterial LPS for 24 h. Cytokine and growth factor concentrations in culture supernatant fluid were measured by using a multiplex assay. LPS increased the expression of VCAM-1 and the production of several cytokines and growth factors. The level of ICAM-1 expression per cell [ie, the median fluorescence int ensity (MFI)] was increased by LPS stimulation in the control group (16.9 +/- 2.4 compared with 135.3) and to a lesser extent in the salmon group (14.1 +/- 3.8). The ICAM-1 MFI in the salmon group after LPS stimulation was lower than in the control group. Increased dietary salmon intake in pregnancy dampens offspring EC activation, which implicates a role for omega-3 LCPUFAs in the suppression of inflammatory processes in humans.
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