Boswellia and Diabetes: Fighting Inflammatory Damage
Boswellia (Boswellia serrata)—sometimes known as frankincense—is already a highly regarded anti-inflammatory, stopping 5-lipooxygenase (5-LOX) inflammation that is common to autoimmune diseases.
Type 1 diabetes is just such a disease, but boswellia is not typically thought of as a potential herbal medicine for treatment. This review found that because of boswellia’s unique ability to fight inflammation, cytokine release, and other factors in type 1 and type 2 diabetes that the herb may be useful for either condition.
One of the key compounds in boswellia is acetyl-11-keto-β-Boswellic acid, generally known as AKBA. When selecting a boswellia supplement, make sure that it is standardized to contain at least 10 percent of AKBA – up to 10 times that of unstandardized boswellia. It ensures that you get enhanced levels of one of the herb’s component, while also retaining some of boswellia’s other beneficial compounds.
Ammon HPT. Boswellic extracts and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids prevent type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus by suppressing the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Phytomedicine. 2019;63:153002.
Background: Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease directed to the pancreatic islets where inflammation leads to the death of insulin-producing ß cells and insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes, which is closely related to overweight, is characterized by insulin resistance. In both cases, proinflammatory cytokines play an important role by causing insulitis and insulin resistance. The gum resin of Boswellia species and its pharmacologically active compounds, including 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids have been shown to suppress the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in various immune-competent cells.
Purpose: To review the present evidence of the therapeutic effects of boswellic extracts (BE) and/or 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids in the prevention/treatment of diabetes mellitus and to provide comprehensive insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms.
Methods: This review considers all available informations from preclinical and clinical studies concerning BEs, 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids, proinflammatory cytokines and diabetes mellitus collected via electronic search (PubMed) and related publications of the author.
Results: Type 1 diabetes: Studies in mice with autoimmune diabetes revealed that in the model of multiple injections of low doses of streptozotocin (MLD-STZ), an extract of the gum resin of Boswellia serrata and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acid (KBA) suppressed the increase in proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, infiltration of lymphocytes into pancreatic islets and increase in blood glucose. In a second model, i.e. the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, KBA prevented the infiltration of lymphocytes into pancreatic islets. Regarding the clinical effects, a case report provided evidence that BE suppressed the blood levels of tyrosine phosphatase antibody (IA2-A), a marker for insulitis, in a patient with late-onset autoimmune diabetes of the adult (LADA). Type 2 diabetes: In a preclinical study in rats where obesity was alimentary induced, the administration of BE significantly reduced food intake, overweight, proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and ameliorated the parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism. Similar results were obtained in a second animal study, where type 2 diabetes was induced by a combination of a high-fat/high-fructose diet and a single dose of streptozotocin. Two clinical trials with patients with type 2 diabetes receiving the resin of Boswellia serrata demonstrated improvement in the blood glucose, HbA1c and lipid parameters.
Conclusion: Preclinical and clinical data suggest that BE and/or 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids by inhibiting the expression of proinflammatory cytokines from immune-competent cells, may prevent insulitis and insulin resistance in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively, and therefore may be an option in the treatment/prevention of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is hypothesized that molecularly, BE and 11-keto-ß-boswellic acids act via interference with the IκB kinase/Nuclear Transcription Factor-κB (IKK/NF-κB) signaling pathway through inhibition of the phosphorylation activity of IKK. However, further investigations and well-designed clinical studies are required.